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Film Glossary/D

1 – 9 A B C D E F G H

da vinci. A color correction machine used to telecine and finish SD and HD shows manufactured by da vinci, Inc.

DA-88. Digital Audio 8 mm. An 8 track deck used in picture and sound editing and on the mix stage to bring in audio from DA-88 cassettes.

DA-98. Latest version of DA-88. See DA-88.

dailies. Footage that arrives daily in the cutting room from the production crew normally shot the previous day.

DAT. Digital Audio Tape. DAT has two channels used to record sound on location or on the sound stage.

DAW. Digital Audio Workstation. A DAW is used by sound editors to cut sound.

DBS. Direct Broadcast Satellite.

DCP. Digital cinema package. The deliverable for digital projection.

de-Bayer. Convert Bayer pattern color filter array footage, such as that produced by a RED camera, to a full RGB image. Process required in order to view or finish with full resolution color footage.

Decibel (dB) Logarithmic unit used to measure the intensity of a sound in relation to a reference level such as 0 dB.

defrag. See fragmented.

degausser. Tool that de-magnetizes sound heads and erases audio from mag film or tape.

de-interlace. Turn two interlaced video fields into a single frame. Used when the video runs at different frame rate than it was created in or to remove interlacing artifacts when making a still frame. See also interlace.

delayed edit. Another video term for overlap, L cut or split edit. See also split edit.

deliverable. Materials contractually required by a distributor or network to exhibit a show such as a master tape, release print, sound elements, timing sheets, music cue sheets, and list of screen credits.

demosaic. See de-Bayer.

DES. Dolby-Encoded Stereo. A noise reduction system that reproduces stereo optical tracks in movie theaters. See also Dolby digital.

development. Phase of a project where the director, producers, casting director, principal talent (actors) are hired and the script is set. Development follows greenlighting and precedes the preproduction phase.

DF. See drop frame.

DI. See digital intermediate.

digital audio recorder. Digital audio device used to record ADR, Foley, dialogue, music, the final mix, etc. that holds eight to forty-eight tracks (depending on the machine). The machine records to a digital medium such as hard disk, DAT, DC, or DVD.

digital cinema. Developing technology that compresses and encrypts the film or digital tape master onto a medium (e.g. data file, DVD, 24p tape, optical disk, or portable hard drive) for exhibiting in a theatre via satellite and/or a digital projector.

digital editing system. A computer used to edit digital audio and video input from files, film, or tape. Called by many compound names including digital system/editor/workstation or NLE.

digital film. Film master that is used to make release prints which contains footage created digitally such as digital effects or CGI. The digital footage is transferred to negative, cut, and processed along with the footage shot on film and digital tape to make the digital film.

digital intermediate. Multiple format finishing process whereby the film negative is scanned to create a 2K to 4K digital version which is either a data file or an uncompressed digital tape format like D5. Color correction and other final finishing is performed on this digital version and it is output to film stock to create a new negative or internegative from which theatrical release prints are struck. Also referred to as digital intermediary.

digital. A digital signal that has limited variation within a small set of numerical variables. Digital records audio, video, and data as files composed of binary numbers (zeroes and ones) that can be read by a computer.

digitize. Input footage from an analog tape into a digital editing system.

dirt fixes. Cleaning out dirt and hair that get caught on the show master tape via a fix session or removing them electronically by running the tape through the online house’s dirt removal system.

dirty dupe. A black and white dupe. See also dupe.

dissolve. A transitional effect where the first/outgoing shot disappears as the second/incoming shot appears.

distribution. Phase of a project during which it’s marketed and contracts are signed for exhibition in theatres or for home viewing on DVD, TV, etc. Distribution follows the postproduction phase of a project and precedes the exhibition phase.

DIT. Digital Imaging Technician. Data wrangler who works with the cinematographer during production to get the best digital images possible by monitoring exposure and making certain camera settings such as codec and time code, creating LUTs, and ensuring that the shot images and their data are correctly transferred to the production drive, and more. New position, where lab meets camera, which originated with the digital age and continues to be developed and defined.

DME. Dialogue, Music and Effects. The three stems that form the mixdown of the final sound mix and are used to make the final sound track or Printmaster.

D-mode. Method in which online assembly events are numbered in non-sequential order by Source reel and then Record IN time code where all effects are performed first.

DNLE. Digital Nonlinear Editing System. See also Digital Editing System.

Dolby digital. Dolby Laboratories’ state-of-the-art 5.1-channel digital sound format that encodes surround sound and can reproduce six tracks of sound. It works by using CD-ROMs to hold the soundtrack and synchronizing them with the DTS time code in the film. The film still holds the stereo optical audio track as backup. Dolby digital is used for 35mm films, DBS, DTV, DVD, HDTV, and laser disk recordings. Originally called AC-3 due to its being based on Dolby’s Audio Compression 3 format that compresses sound data, Dolby is the audio component of HDTV.

Dolby sound. Developed by Dolby Laboratories in 1977 to accompany Star Wars, Dolby sound is a high end noise reduction and surround sound system that combines multiple channel LCRS audio in an encoded signal for recording, projecting, and broadcasting. It still has widespread use though there are newer versions now, including Dolby digital. See also LCRS.

dongle. Small hardware plug-in device that tells a computer to activate certain software. It allows a customer to buy a digital system and only pay for the software they need.

double perf. 16mm or other lower gauge film with sprocket holes on both sides.

double strand. See A/B roll.

double system. Production method where audio and video are recorded on two different formats e.g. film and file, and require syncing before they can be edited.

downer, a.k.a down convert. Transfer from one standard to a lower standard e.g. from HD tape to SD tape.

DP. Director of photography i.e. the cinematographer.

DPX. Digital picture exchange. Standard file format used in DI and VFX work due to its ability to preserve the color data of scanned film negative and store the metadata associated with it.

drop frame. Method of numbering and accounting for NTSC videotape frames that doesn’t count (drops) certain frames in order to be time accurate.

drop out. Loss of video or audio on an analog tape during playback.

DSLR. Digital single lens reflex. Type of still camera that records HD video to computer disk. Starting to be used to shoot segments and entire shows due to its sharp, film like images.

DTS. Digital Theater System. 5:1 digital sound encoded on film, tape, and DVD and direct competition to Dolby digital. Since some theatres run DTS sound and some run Dolby, soundtracks are encoded with both digital tracks.

DTV. Digital broadcast TV. The standard required for 2006 by the FCC.

dub. Dub has two different meanings: 1) To copy or re-record from one medium to another. 2) The mix. See also mix.

dubber. A film recording machine used to playback the mag reels. Also called a film dummy or dummy.

dummy. See dubber.

dupe. Duplicate work print reels printed up by the film lab, usually for the sound editors when they edit on film. Also known as a dirty dupe, black and white, or 1:1 (one to one).

duration. Length of a shot or edit on a digital or video editing system.

DV. Digital Video. Stores video, audio, and other information in digital form

DVD-R. Common type of DVD that is write once, read many.

DVD-RAM. Rewritable DVD disk.

DVE. Digital Video Effects. In the 1980s the DVE was a specific hardware device for making special effects on tape but quickly came to stand for all special effects hardware devices. Now DVE refers to both software and hardware digital effects.

dynamics. Relationship between low and high volume on sound tracks, which if mixed correctly, will differentiate between soft and loud sounds, contain organic high points and low points and be uncompressed.

double system. Production method where audio and video are recorded on two different formats e.g. film and file, and require syncing before they can be edited.