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Film Glossary/A

1 – 9 A B C D E F G H

A roll. Assembling the film negative in one roll as is typically done with 35mm. Also called single strand.

A side. Outgoing shot or left side of the cut.

A.C.E. American Cinema Editors. An honorary society of editors who are voted into membership based on their professional achievements, dedication to the education of others, and commitment to the craft of editing. A.C.E. always follows their name on screen. A.C.E. hosts its own editing awards ceremony after every year for which winners receive a Golden Eddie award and runs an editing internship program.

A/B reel. Two video tapes that are used to create a transition effect such as a dissolve, fade, or wipe. State-of-the-art digital editing machines do not require A/B rolls as the effects can be done simultaneously in real time or by rendering.

A/B roll. Two synced rolls of negative that are checkerboarded to produce effects and the final release 16mm print.

AAF. Advanced Authoring Format created by the AAF Association, a trade organization, and beginning to be used by editors working on digital systems. An expanded OMF, an AAF contains EDL information plus audio and video media as well as metadata and data on an increased number of complex effects and titles and can operate with a variety of different media types such as QuickTime and MXF. Avid, Quantel, and other manufacturers’ proprietary information can be encoded in the metadata for exchange only within the manufacturers’ equipment.

AC-3. See Dolby digital.

Academy leader. Film count down leader which counts down from eight to three and syncs picture at frame two with a corresponding beep (sync pop) on the sound leader.

Acmade code. A widely used thermal ink code produced in the United Kingdom. See also ink code.

action match. Matching the action (movement or motion) of characters or objects in one shot to the action in the next shot where the action continues or completes.

address track. LTC track on analog tape that’s narrow and designed to hold time code. See also LTC.

Adobe Premiere Pro. Digital editing system.

ADR. Automated Dialogue Replacement. The process by which a line of dialogue is recorded and re-spoken by an actor in sync (hopefully) with the picture to replace the original sync production line. Also referred to as looping.

AES. Audio Engineering Society. A US organization which recommends standards and practices for technical audio issues.

AFE. Avid File Exchange. An AAF that works with Avid systems exclusively and provides proprietary information for recreating an Avid sequence.

AIFF. Audio Interchange File Format. Standard Macintosh audio file format created by Apple.

air master. Show tape that is broadcast.

ALE. Avid Log Exchange. What an Avid converts the telecine log file into. The ALE file becomes part of the film database that the cutlist program will access to make the film cutlist for the negative cutter.

aliasing. An artifact that occurs while reproducing digital video or audio.

ambience. Wordless, background sound recorded on location. Often called presence.

A-mode. Method in which online assembly events are numbered in sequential order by Record IN time code.

AMPAS. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. “The Academy” hands out the annual Oscar awards, holds screenings throughout the year to honor US filmmakers, and generally promotes the recognition and preservation of motion pictures.

amplitude. Measure in decibels (dB), amplitude is the loudness (strength or amount) of a signal.

analog. An electrical signal that varies continuously as it records. Analog takes the original data and converts the video and audio information into a varying voltage or magnetic field.

analogue audio recorder. Analogue audio recording device such as reel-to-reel recorder and cassette deck.

answer print. An AP, a.k.a. First Trial Print, is a color timed print made from the cut negative and screened with the director, DP, and Timer. Typically several APs are made for each reel until the director and/or DP approve.

Arrilaser. A type of laser film recorder. See also laser film recorder.

artifacts. Unwanted effects or distortions on a digital tape, file, or disk not found in the original (digital or analog) video or audio.

ASCAP. American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers. A prominent performing rights organization of which there are many. Composers and publishers affiliate with one of these organizations which collect and pay out royalties when music they represent is exhibited in a movie theatre or aired on a television show.

aspect ratio. The width to height ratio of a frame of film or video linked to the size of the screen it will run on.

ATSC. Advanced Television Systems Committee. U.S. board that sets standards for digital TV broadcast.

audio delay. A split edit where video starts first and audio second. See also split edit.

audio time code. See LTC.

authoring tools. Tools for the non-programmer for creating interactive applications such as DVDs.

authoring. Creating a document for the Web or a DVD.

auto assembly. Online method by which a tape-based machine initiates and records each edit in the list automatically while the editor monitors the result. The opposite of manual assembly.

Automatic Duck. Software (and name of the company that produces it) that aids in translating sequences and files between systems, e.g. After Effects, Avid, FCP, and Pro Tools.

AVCHD. Advanced video coding high definition. File-based format for recording and playing back HD tapes and disks.

AVI. Audio Video Interleaved. Microsoft’s multimedia file format similar to MPEG and Apple’s QuickTime, which interleaves (stores in alternate segments) and compresses audio and video.

Avid. Professional digital editing system.