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Cut of Month

November 2013

Type of cut Managing the 180° line – Method 3.
Definition There is an invisible line in every camera set-up that bisects the scene horizontally at 180 degrees. If the camera crosses this line and breaks this 180° line, the audience loses its reference as to where people and objects are in the scene. This is known as “crossing the line” or “breaking the 180° rule.” Making sure this doesn’t happen is the director’s job first and foremost, followed by the editor. Dealing with the 180° line is part of any shoot, be it a drama, documentary, or sports show. Method 3 manages line crossing a.k.a. axis crossing by moving the camera. The re-positioned camera establishes a new 180° line.
Description Method 3 keeps the audience riveted to the action and allows the editor to cut in other shots, as this taut scene below from the period drama Lust, Caution demonstrates. The first and last cuts (frames) are cutaways; the middle cuts show the camera circling clockwise around the mahjong table.
Comments The past two months illustrated how to observe the 180° line using cutaways such as overhead shots (Method 1) and by having the actors or characters move (Method 2). The third way to manage line crossing a.k.a. axis crossing is to move the camera. The re-positioned camera establishes a new 180° line.
To understand more about crossing the 180° line, see Chapter 3: Rogue Cuts: Mismatches, Jump Cuts, Crossing the Line, and Bad Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Lust, Caution ©2007 Focus Features/Universal Pictures, All Rights Reserved.

October 2013

Type of cut Managing the 180° line – Method 2.
Definition There is an invisible line in every camera set-up that bisects the scene horizontally at 180 degrees. If the camera crosses this line and breaks this 180° line, the audience loses its reference as to where people and objects are in the scene. This is known as “crossing the line” or “breaking the 180° rule.” Making sure this doesn’t happen is the director’s job first and foremost, followed by the editor. Managing the 180° line is part of any shoot, be it a drama, documentary, or sports show.
Description Frame 1 is an over the shoulder shot of Hadley with the aquariaum behind her. This cuts to Frames 2 where Hadley moves to establish an new 180° line, ending the cut at Frame 2A and 2B. This shot then then cuts to Sookie who now has the aquarium behind her. The director didn’t just tell the move the actor’s on a whim. Hadley’s movement is motivated by her desire to introduce her son Hunter to Sookie.
Comments The past two months illustrated how to observe the 180° line using cutaways. With this method the director has the actors move to cross the line a.k.a. the axis. Renowned editor Dede Allen who worked with and was influenced by director Robert Wise explained that

“Robert Wise would always plan his axis change…there was always one key shot. When you don’t get those shots, and you just have somebody coming in without any reason, then you have a scene where nobody relates to anyone. Nobody is looking anybody else in the eye, and it’s totally disorienting. The audience might get thrown out of the scene because it’s non-connective. Film is connective; that’s what film is.” (Emphasis added.)

You can learn more about crossing the line and constructing scenes by reading Cut by Cut: How to Edit Your Film or Video, Second Edition.

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True Blood “Everything is Broken” ©2011 HBO, All Rights Reserved.

September 2013

Type of cut Managing the 180° line – Method 1, second example.
Definition There is an invisible line in every camera set-up that bisects the scene horizontally at 180 degrees. If the camera crosses this line and breaks this 180° line, the audience loses its reference as to where people and objects are in the scene. This is known as “crossing the line” or “breaking the 180° rule.” Making sure this doesn’t happen is the director’s job first and foremost, followed by the editor. Managing the 180° line is part of any shoot, be it a drama, documentary, or sports show.
Description In this tense scene with a lot of characters, Frames 1 and 3 if cut together would cross the line and cause the audience to become confused about the geography and characters’ positions. To solve the problem, the editor cut away to an overhead shot (Frame 2) to bridge Frames 1 and 2.
Comments Last month covered how inserting a cutaway is the most common method editors and directors employ to maneuver between two shots that if cut together would cross the line. One oft-used cutaway is an overhead shot. Using an overhead shot not only follows the 180° rule but also forwards the action. Additionally, an overhead shot serves as a pause in the action as it pulls viewers back from the scene for a bird’s eye view before they’re plunged back into the middle of the action with another cut.
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Munich ©2005 Universal, All Rights Reserved.

August 2013

Type of cut Managing the 180° line – Method 1.
Definition There is an invisible line in every camera set-up that bisects the scene horizontally at 180 degrees. If the camera crosses this line and breaks this 180° line, the audience loses its reference as to where people and objects are in the scene. This is known as “crossing the line” or “breaking the 180° rule.” Making sure this doesn’t happen is the director’s job first and foremost, followed by the editor. Managing the 180° line is part of any shoot, be it a drama, documentary, or sports show. For instance, football games are filmed from one side of the field only so there is no chance to cut to the other side of the field and make the players appear to be running toward the wrong goal.
Description Last month showed Frames 1 and 3 without Frame 2, which made for a cut that crossed the line a.k.a. broke the 180° line. See how inserting a cutaway – audience member Julie Christie – allows the movie audience to follow the action and the editor to use the reverse shot of the two actors that the director shot and move around the geography of the scene.
Comments Inserting a cutaway is the first of three ways to manage two shots that if cut together cross the 180° line. Using a cutaway is the most common ways editors deal with the problem to show the drama from different angles and make the story work. For other examples of how editors mitigate line-crossing shots, read Chapter 3: Rogue Cuts: Mismatches, Jump Cuts, Crossing the Line, and Bad Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Finding Neverland ©2006 Miramax, All Rights Reserved.

July 2013

Type of cut Crossing the line.
Definition There is an invisible line in every camera set-up that bisects the scene horizontally at 180 degrees. If the camera crosses this line and breaks this 180° line, the audience loses its reference as to where people and objects are in the scene. This is known as “crossing the line” or “breaking the 180° rule.”
Description This is a scene from a play – Peter Pan – from the movie Finding Neverland. Frame 1 shows Peter on the left and Wendy on the right and is shot from the audience’s POV point of view). Frame 2 shows Wendy on the left and Peter on the right and is shot from the stage looking out at the audience which is visible in the background. This cut crosses the line because Peter and Wendy have reversed positions.
Comments Crossing the line and the 180 degree rule are a mystery to many beginning filmmakers who later realize continuity and sense have been lost in a scene when trying to put together poorly thought out shots. Directors film footage from both sides of the 180° line as shown in this cut. However, they typically foresee cuts that cross the line and plan for them. There are three ways to deal with them. There are even times when it’s all right to cross the line. We will look at how to fix these scene, how editors and directly routinely observe the 180° rule, and when it’s OK to cross the line and break the 180° rule with examples here in the next four months. In the meantime, to learn more, turn to Chapter 3: Rogue Cuts: Mismatches, Jump Cuts, Crossing the Line, and Bad Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Finding Neverland ©2006 Miramax, All Rights Reserved.

June 2013

Type of cut Black out.
Definition When a shot cuts (as opposed to employing a dissolve or other transitional effect) to black.
Description This cut shows how to create and eye blink with the close-up of an eye (Frame 1) and black (Frame 2). Frame 3 shows how an eye blink can take the audience to another scene entirely.
Comments Director John Huston once remarked that “Film is like thought. It’s the closest to the thought process of any art.” And editing with it switches to past, future, and present – all within the blink of a few cuts – supports this process with every frame. Walter Murch, A.C.E., Picture and Sound Editor, Apocalypse Now, The English Patient, On Cold Mountain, and many others, in his book In the Blink of an Eye instructs editors:

Your job is partly to anticipate, partly to control, the thought processes of the audience. To give them what they want and/or what they need just before they have to “ask” for it–to be surprising yet self-evident at the same time. If you are too far behind or ahead of them, you create problems, but if you are right with them, leading them ever so slightly, the flow of events feels natural and exciting at the same time.”

To view other examples of black outs as well as white outs and learn more about how basic effects affect story, turn to Chapter 4: Cuts that use Basic Effects of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.

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Sherlock, “A Study in Pink,” ©2011 BBC, All Rights Reserved.

May 2013

Type of cut Eyeline match and screen direction match.
Definition Eyeline match – Matching the lines of vision between characters’ eyes.
Screen direction match – Matching how a character (or object) exits one shot and enters the next shot, reappearing where the audience expects to see them.
Description This briskly-paced opening scene shows cell phone communication between a female character (Shot 1) and a male character (Shot 2). Their movement within the frame and the match of their eyeline in addition to the audio of their conversation engages the audience right away. The cut from Frame 2 to Frame 3 exemplifies a screen direction match: Viewers don’t lose him in the crowd and stay with the conversation.
Comments Matches are fundamental cuts that are ubiquitous in films and videos of all types. They are workhorse cuts that help get the story across, which is the editor’s primary purpose. Match cuts can be purposeful or clever or just plain fun. (See last’s month’s Cut of the Month for a fun type of match cut.) To see all the different types of matches and some terrific examples, read Chapter 2: Match Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Sherlock, “A Study in Pink,” ©2011 BBC, All Rights Reserved.

April 2013

Type of cut Shape match.
Definition Matching similarly-shaped objects or forms.
Description Frame 1 (Shot 1) – the inner workings of a giant mechanical clock – dissolves (in Frame 2) to a similar shape in Frame 3 (Shot 2), the famed star grid that is the layout of guess what city? (See Comment below.)
Comments Shape matches are enjoyable cuts to detect in a film. More importantly, they can perform other functions in the film as they do in these frames: They can predict or comment on the action and span time and/or place. These two shots comprise the opening frames of this Oscar-nominated Martin Scorsese film, setting it’s time (the 1930s), place (Paris), and theme (an homage to early filmmaking and a mechanized age). To view more witty and purposeful shape matches, see Chapter 2: Match Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Hugo ©2011 Paramount, All Rights Reserved.

March 2013

Type of cut Texture cut – a newly identified type of match cut.
Definition A cut that matches surfaces from one shot to another.
Description Here two types of plants are matched: Spiky grass in the first frame and tall trees in the second. Both shots are in soft focus – another matched element.
Comments These cuts are from the The Betrayal, an Oscar-nominated documentary about a Laotian family’s ordeals during the Vietnam war and afterwards when they emigrated to the U.S.
To enjoy more types of matched cuts – the most common type of cut that editors make – turn to Chapter 2: Match Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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The Betrayal ©2008 Pandinlao Films, All Rights Reserved.

February 2013

Type of cut Object angle juxtaposition.
Definition A cut that shows contrast from one cut to the next, in this case from a vertical object to a horizontal object. Juxtapositions in films can also be seen between angles, time periods, locales, and actions to name but a few examples.
Description Here, two pairs of cuts juxtapose a vertical object to a horizontal object. The first pair – icicles in Frame 1 contrasts with the supine character of Lars (Ryan Gosling) in Frame 2. The second pair juxtaposes a person standing in Frame 3 to bridge spanning a river in Frame 4.
Comments These frames illustrate the gray-brown doldrums of winter in the New York town where lives. To learn about the different types of cuts that editors make, read Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Lars and the Real Girl ©2007 MGM, All Rights Reserved.

January 2013

Type of cut Film strip cut – a newly named cut to honor the new year
Definition A split screen cut that moves horizontally i.e. filmstrips move in opposite directions top to left and bottom to right.
Description Film strip cuts constitute this trailer which employs matte shots (see Cut of the Month February 2010) and text superimposed over black to put out its message. It’s an innovative trailer that invites moviegoers to line up for Import Export, a 2007 nominee for the Palme d’Or (French equivalent of the Oscar) at the Cannes Film Festival.
Comments The cut underscores the movie’s parallel stories and its non-linear action. Simultaneously, the movie follows a nurse from Ukraine searching for a better life in the West and an unemployed security guard from Austria heading East for the same reason.To discover many more different types of cuts, read Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Trailer for Import Export ©2007 Palisades Tartan All rights reserved, All Rights Reserved

December 2012

Type of cut Reverse and mismatch.
Definition Reverse: A cut to the opposite (reverse) angle.Mismatch: A cut in which continuity is lost due to a difference between elements such as action, angle, eyeline, lighting, camera framing or position, props, weather, wardrobe, or makeup.
Description This upside down frame of this odd cut reveals the new young Holmes – more a Sherlock than a Holmes – in the pilot episode of the BBC series titled Sherlock.
Comments While this cut works in context, if you study it closely, it’s actually a mismatch. Compare the two frames: Sherlock (in frame 1) has a window behind him: If the angle was matched correctly, there would be none. Rather, you’d just see his head and the black body bag draped around his shoulders. For more examples of reverses and mismatches, take a look at Chapter 1: Basic Cuts and Chapter 3: Rogue Cuts: Mismatches, Jump Cuts, Crossing the Line, and Bad Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Sherlock “A Study in Pink” ©2011 BBC, All Rights Reserved

November 2012

Type of cut Exposition cut.
Definition Cut in a scene at the beginning of a film that sets its time, place, situation, characters, tone, and/or theme.
Description Expository scenes often unfold over head credits as this one does. The frames are from Cinema Verite, a 2011 drama about An American Family, the first reality series. Debuting in 1973, it followed the lives of Loud family of Santa Barbara, CA.
Comments I can almost hear the slap of the splicer in frame three. To learn more about expository cuts, please refer to Chapter 8: Cutting Scenes of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Cinema Verite (selected cuts) ©2011 HBO, All Rights Reserved

October 2012

Type of cut Homage cut.
Definition Cut that pays respect to a previous director or movie.
Description The protagonist is whisked away from his beloved (frame 1) to the clutches of his accidental corpse bride (frame 4). This is accomplished via a wipe (frames 2 and 3) created by a frenzied flock of birds.
Comments The cut is an homage to Alfred Hitchcock and his movie The Birds. It’s a new cut I identified since I’ve been working on my editing class, “Film Editing for Movie Lovers: Making an Invisible Art Visible,” which start October 3 in Santa Rosa, CA. These are fun cuts to detect. Feel free to let Joy know of others you discover. To see this and many other types of wipes, check out my book, Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Corpse Bride ©2005 Warner Bros, All Rights Reserved

September 2012

Type of cut Color, lighting, and shape match.
Definition Matching color, lighting, and shape from one shot to another.
Description I came across this fantastic match while pulling scenes to use for the editing class, Film Editing for Movie Lovers: Making an Invisible Art Visible.I’ll be teaching this October in Santa Rosa, CA. It shows a shot of a broom being used to mop up blood after a murder in a meth lab cuts to a French fry being used to mop up catsup on a plate in diner. The two shots are cleverly matched in color (bloody red!), dark lighting in the upper (diagonal) half, and shape.
Comments The cut relieves the gruesome action and intense emotion of the first scene – a night scene – by matching it to an ordinary action in the second scene – a day scene. To see some other colorful and interesting lighting, color, and shape matches see Chapter 2: Match Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Breaking Bad Ep 401 “Box Cutter” ©2012 AMC/Sony Pictures Television, All Rights Reserved

August 2012

Type of cut Rope match
Definition Matching two different takes of the same camera angle. This elusive match cut pays homage to director Alfred Hitchcock, whose 1948 film, Rope, depended on them. This 81-minute movie is composed of ten cuts only between ten master shots and except for an opening establishing shot of Manhattan, was filmed entirely on one set.
Description Rope matches are impossible to detect if done properly. Luckily, the cuts in Rope are well documented and easy to spot once you get the hang of them.
A couple of notes:

A couple of notes:

1) Hitchcock’s editor invariably added few black frames to soften the match between master shots, but a rope cut can work without black frames if the camera work is consistent. To demonstrate this, I deleted the black frames in the frames below.

2) Rope most often uses a character’s back to end one master shot and cut to another as evident in frame 4 below.

This example consists of two shots of three frames each and one rope match cut between the two shots.

    • Shot 1 has the character cross the room (frames 1-2) and pause with his back to the audience (frame 3) to end the shot and initiate the cut.
    • Shot 2 starts where Shot 1 ended: with the character’s back to the audience (frame 4). Shot 2 then continues as the character exits frame and reveals another conversation (frames 5-6).

 

Comments Find out more about Hitchcock, Rope, and rope matches well as other types of match cuts in Chapter 2: Match Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Rope ©1948 United Artists/Universal Pictures, All Rights Reserved

July 2012

Type of cut Angle match.
Definition Matching shots with similar angles e.g. long shots, medium shots, close-ups, etc.
Description Editors often match angles when two characters or objects are interacting, especially in dialogue scenes. Match cuts keep characters closely connected, especially as a scene reaches its climax.

The angle matched here is a raking angle. A form of a two-shot, a rake is a tight shot filmed from the side that favors one character and usually includes part of the other character. Raking shots are filmed in pairs and are habitually used in bed scenes and interior car scenes where the physical set-up is too constrained to make a reverse shot or OS.

Comments To learn about the many types of match cuts, see Chapter 2: Match Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Lars and the Real Girl ©2007 MGM, All Rights Reserved.

June 2012

Type of cut Expanding time.
Definition Editing to lengthen real time.
Description Editors expand time in a variety of ways to elongate the moment, like a sustained note or repeated phrase in music, and let viewers fully experience the emotion and what’s taking place. Slo mo shots – lengthening time – show Oscar Schell imagining that his father plunged off the WTC to his death on 9/11. (He died in the tower but did not jump.)
Comments Last month’s Cut of the Month – a flash cut – showed quick cuts that got inside Oscar’s head. This month’s example gets inside the boy’s head but with slo mo, time elongating cuts. These cuts exemplify two types of cuts: expanding time and subjective time (cutting from the character’s POV). To learn more about how editing can expand, compress, and manipulate time, go to Chapter 6: Cutting for Pace, Rhythm and Time of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close ©2011 Warner Brothers, All Rights Reserved.

May 2012

Type of cut Flash cut.
Definition This month’s cut builds on last two month’s Cut of the Month – compressing time and subjective time. A flash cut combines compressed time and subjective time to create a short cut that quickly and intensively gets inside a character’s head. Flash cuts sear the audience’s brain with what a character is seeing and feeling.
Description Oscar Schell (Thomas Horn) names the things that panic him: running people, crying people, abandoned things, and flying things – to list but a few.
Comments As the boy runs the litany of fearful items, the pace of the cuts accelerates and the music becomes more shrill, mimicking the boy’s increasingly panicked state of mind. To, witness more examples of flash cuts, flip top Chapter 6: Cutting for Pace, Rhythm and Time of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close ©2011 Warner Brothers, All Rights Reserved.

April 2012

Type of cut Subjective time.
Definition Cutting to show time experienced from a character’s point of view.
Description Besotted with grief after the sudden death of his partner, George Falconer (Colin Firth) drives to work. Slo mos and reaction shots combine to show how Falconer sees his neighbors: As they go about their everyday activities they appear to be in a world far removed from his.
Comments Filmmaking is considered to be the art that most mimics the human mind. Editing from a character’s point of view exemplifies this and is what allows movies to cross into our dreams, hopes, fears, beliefs, and experiences. To view more examples of subjective time from well know recent movies, tune into Chapter 6: Cutting for Pace, Rhythm and Time of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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A Single Man ©2009 The Weinstein Company All Rights Reserved.

March 2012

Type of cut Compressing time.
Definition Editing to contract real time.
Description A time-compressed sequence conveys information swiftly. Editors compress time in a number of ways including: making cuts that are short in duration (2” or less), employing dissolves, mattes, or other effects, and creating a fast rhythm. They edit long journeys to compress real time as well as to efficiently convey story points and provide a sense of place and time period.
Comments These three shots employ long, languorous dissolves to take the audience not only through the seasons but through the years as the town grows up around the central characters’ house. To see and learn more about these ubiquitously used cuts, read Chapter 6: Cutting for Pace, Rhythm and Time of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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The Triplets of Belleville ©2003 Sony Pictures Classics, All Rights Reserved.

February 2012

Type of cut Wipe.
Definition A transitional effect where the incoming shot replaces the outgoing shot by appearing to push (wipe) it from the screen.
Description A passerby – frame two – wipes the action from a wide shot (frame 1) to closer shot (frame 3).
Comments Following on December and January’s look at wipes, this month we’ll discuss how wipes affect the tale that the editor is attempting to tell. A wipe literally pushes the action – the story – forward from one shot to the next as these three frames below aptly illustrate. If ill used, wipes can detract from the story and be cheesy – especially if overused on a project from the potpourri of effects instantly available on digital editing systems. To discover more about the power of a wipe and why an editor or director would create one, read Chapter 5: Cuts that use Complex Effects of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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The Aviator ©2004 Miramax, All Rights Reserved.

January 2012

Type of cut Wipe.
Definition A transitional effect where the incoming shot replaces the outgoing shot by appearing to push (wipe) it from the screen.
Description Continuing December’s discussion of wipes, here’s another horizontal, right to left wipe. This wipe, however uses an element – a car – to make the transition from one shot of the man in sleeveless shirt to a wider shot of him.
Comments Filmmakers use many elements to wipe between scenes: cars, doors, people, trains, planes, flowing water, and curtains are some common devices. To see extensive examples and learn more, turn to Chapter 5: Cuts that use Complex Effects of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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The Station Agent ©2003 Miramax, All Rights Reserved.

December 2011

Type of cut Wipe.
Definition A transitional effect where the incoming shot replaces the outgoing shot by appearing to push (wipe) it from the screen.
Description This classic wipe depicts a shot of soldiers (frame 1 – outgoing shot) transitioning to shot of a little girl (frames 2-4 – incoming shot) so that by frame 5 we see only the girl. It’s a horizontal wipe that moves from right to left. Wipes can move left to right or right in any direction: vertically, diagonally, horizontally, from the middle of the frame (like a barn door opening). It uses a fuzzy, vertical bar – an imitation tree – to define the leading edge of the wipe. Many wipes simply use the frame line as the edge.
Comments Editors can create wipes after the shoot or the director may create them as part of composing shots on set. Next month, I’ll look at a wipe composed during filming by the director. In the meantime, to see many creative examples and learn more about wipes, turn to Chapter 5: Cuts that use Complex Effects of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Pan’s Labyrinth ©2006 Picturehouse/New Line Cinema, All Rights Reserved.

November 2011

Type of cut Juxtaposition.
Definition Parallel action* that shows contrast from one cut to the next. The contrast can be in time periods, locales, actions, etc. It can carry a political theme, be jarring, unsettling, or merely curious.
Description These four pairs of juxtaposition cuts underscore the theme The Betrayal, the story of co-director Thavisouk Phrasavath and his family. Filmed over 23 years this documentary tells the agonizing tale of his family, which sided with the U.S. in the Vietnam war, then paid the price with their emigration to the U.S. Here are four pairs of frames that illustrate juxtaposition cuts.Juxtaposition 1:
A temple in Laos contrasted with President Kennedy announcing U.S. military efforts to wipe out communism in Indo China.
Juxtaposition 2:
Laotians today and Laotians being bombed and shot at in the 1970s.
Juxtaposition 3:
Historic footage of dead civilians juxtaposed with the view out of Phrasavath’s window as he returns to his village in Laos after decades.
Juxtaposition 4:
Lost Laotian youth compare tats while their equivalents in Laos put in their required time as monks.
Comments Juxtaposition is a new cut that I’ve identified since I wrote Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know. I named it to honor Sergei Eisenstein, the “Father of Editing” which was called montage by him and his fellow 1920s Soviet film pioneers. Eisenstein spoke of the juxtaposition of shots and viewed montage as the conflict of ideas derived from the opposition of one shot to another. He wrote: “The general course of the montage was an uninterrupted interweaving of diverse themes into one unified movement. Each mon¬tage-piece had a double responsibility to build the total line as well as to continue the movement within each of the contributory themes.”To learn about more different types of cuts, why an editor would make them, and how they affect the audience, read Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know. *For an explanation and illustration of parallel action see March 2011 Cut of the Month.
  • Juxtapostion 1 frame 1
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The Betrayal ©2008 Pandinlao Films, All Rights Reserved.

October 2011

Type of cut Speed up.
Definition Effect where the pace of the action is increased from what occurred in real time in front of the camera. This increase is accomplished during editing or, more traditionally, during filming by undercranking (running the film through the camera at a slower rate than it will be played back).
Description Seen far less frequently than slo mos, speed ups are commonly employed to propel a character from Point A to Point B more quickly. In these opening cuts of “A Study in Pink” – the premiere episode of the new Sherlock Holmes series – shots of well-known streets of modern London are sped up to set an energetic pace for the show
Comments The speed-ups, along with the images, at the head of this show immediately inform viewers that this isn’t their great, great grandmother’s Sherlock Holmes. Joy will expose more of the editing of this Emmy-nominated series for Best Editing in upcoming Cuts of the Month. In the meantime, to enjoy more speed ups and other cuts, read Chapter 7: Cuts that use Time Effects of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
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Sherlock, “A Study in Pink” ©2011 Miramax, All Rights Reserved. Hartswood Films, BBC Productions, and Masterpiece Theatre.

September 2011

Type of cut Variation on August Cut of the Month: Reverse cut using mirrors.
Definition A cut to an opposite (reverse) angle. The reverse can cut:

 

 

 

  • from the front of a character(s) to the angle behind the character(s)
  • or from a character(s) to the character(s) they’re facing.

 

Description Reverse cuts frequently employ mirrors, windows, or other reflective devices to create the reverse angle. This reverse is unusual as it uses two mirrors and includes the characters. The result is that the shot contains both angles and conveys more information about the scene and what’s going on with the characters.
Comments There’s a lot more to say about the power and ingenuity of reaction cuts. To find out more, read Chapter 1: Basic Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Happy Go Lucky frame 1
  • Happy Go Lucky frame 2

Happy-Go-Lucky ©2008 Miramax, All Rights Reserved.

August 2011

Type of cut Reverse cut.
Definition A cut to an opposite (reverse) angle. The reverse can cut:

 

 

 

  • from the front of a character(s) to the angle behind the character(s)
  • or from a character(s) to the character(s) they’re facing.

 

Description Frame 2, a side-angle reverse, humorously reveals that Lars’ girlfriend is not flesh and blood.
Comments To view more interesting reverse shots and learn more about them, see Chapter 2: Match Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Lars and Doll frame 1
  • Lars and Doll frame 2

Lars and the Real Girl ©2007 MGM, All Rights Reserved.

July 2011

Type of cut Bridge cut.
Definition A cut, or series of cuts, that serve to transition from one scene to another.
Description These out-of-focus moving camera shots of the Laotian countryside transport the main character from one part of Laos to another in this scene from the Oscar-nominated doc The Betrayal. The cuts reflect his journey as he explores the country of his birth and seeks to reconcile it with his hard knock teen years in NYC where his family was forced to emigrate due to his father being a soldier loyal to the U.S. in the American war in Indo China.
Comments This a new cut that I’ve identified since I wrote a book on the subject of cuts and why editors make them. To learn about more different types of cuts and how they affect the audience, read Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • First example
  • Second example
  • Third example

The Betrayal ©2008 Pandinlao Films, All Rights Reserved.

June 2011

Type of cut Miscut a.k.a. mismatch.
Definition A cut in which continuity is lost due to a difference between elements such as action, eyeline, lighting, camera framing or position, props, weather, wardrobe, or makeup.
Description We’ve all notice many miscuts with, well, glee! But many more have escaped us due to the editor’s sleight of hand. Good editors focus on the story and the action, deflecting the audience’s attention from the mismatch. Often movement and music – as is this case with this mismatch – obscure the mismatch.
Comments To see through more editor’s tricks and view some mismatches in popular films by Oscar-winning editors, read Chapter 3: Rogue Cuts: Mismatches, Jump Cuts, Crossing the Line, and Bad Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Miscut Glee Frame 1
  • Miscut Glee Frame 2

Glee, “The Power of Madonna” ©2010 Twentieth Century Fox, All Rights Reserved.

May 2011

Type of cut Split screen.
Definition Dividing the screen into two or more parts with different shots in each division.
Description A split screen conveys more information rapidly and notches up the pace as these three examples from 127 Hours so perfectly demonstrate. These split frames show the verve and nerve of the film’s risk-taking hero who literally cuts off his arm to get himself out of a hole. Example 1 speeds up his night exodus from city to desert traihead. Example 2 shows him nearing his mountaineering objective as morning lights up a pictograph. Example 3 – well I couldn’t resist adding this since it illustrates split screens use on head credits – and look whose credit it is!
Comments To view some other cool split screens and learn more about how they work in films, see Chapter 5: Cuts that use Complex Effects of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • First example
  • Second example
  • Third example

127 Hours ©2010 Twentieth Century Fox, All Rights Reserved.

April 2011

Type of cut Shape match.
Definition Matching similarly-shaped objects or forms.
Description Shape matches are fun cuts to spot. And none is more foolishly fun than this match from a sloppy Joe to a hamburger restaurant with his likeness on top.
Comments To see some diverse and bizarre shape matches and learn more about them, look at Chapter 2: Match Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Shape hamburger match 1
  • Shape hamburger match 2

The Triplets of Belleville ©2003 Sony Pictures Classics, All Rights Reserved.

March 2011

Type of cut Parallel action.
Definition Editing two (or more) independent lines of action together where characters, settings, or subjects do not interact directly and are unaware of each other.
Description Los Angelenos go about their separate lives until they begin to collide in Crash, Academy Award winner for best picture, 2006.
Comments For more information and some wonderful examples of parallel action, read Chapter 8: Cutting Scenes in Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Crash scene 1
  • Crash scene 2

Crash ©2006 Lions Gate Films, All Rights Reserved.

February 2011

Type of cut White out.
Definition When a shot cuts or dissolves to white as seen in frame 4.
Description White outs often involves organic elements such as a camera flashbulb, steam or a light, as the headlight on the approaching train exemplifies in frame 1. Along with black outs and fade outs, white outs are common devices for portraying death. In frames 2 and 3 – a reverse shot from frame 1 – we see the movie’s main character facing obliteration.

What 2011 Academy Award for best picture and best editing movie ended with a white out that supports this convention? For the answer, see below at the end of Comment section.

 

Comments To see some innovative uses of white outs, read Chapter 4: Cuts that use Basic Effects of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.

Answer to quiz question: The Black Swan ended with a white out.

 

  • Scene 1 from white out sequence
  • Scene 2 from white out sequence
  • Scene 3 from white out sequence
  • Scene 4 from white out sequence

The Station Agent ©2003 Miramax, All Rights Reserved.

January 2011

Type of cut Reaction.
Definition A cut to a participant reacting to something that has just happened.
Description Editing in a reaction or series of reactions can be extremely powerful as reactions show human emotion and thought, and key viewers’ emotional response: Should they hold their breaths, laugh, cry, worry, or get angry? A game scene is a perfect way to show undercurrents via human reactions as these selected edits from the lead-off scene from The Squid and the Whale demonstrates.

In frame 1 the family plays tennis in a drab indoor tennis court. We witness the tension boil over between the parents in Frame 2 as he slams the ball at her. It hits her in frame 3 and hurt and furious, she walks off the court. In frame 4 he meets her with anger his own and exits toward her in frame 5 as their two sons turn to each other, foreshadowing a pattern that will be repeated many times in this no fun and games family movie. In frame 5 the boys watch their parents fight, a prelude to their separation a few scenes later.

 

Comments There’s a lot more to say about the power of reaction cuts. To learn more and more examples, read Chapter 1: Basic Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Set up Family
  • He hits to her
  • She gets hit and walks off
  • He reacts to her
  • He walks off to her as boys converge on each other
  • Boys watch quarreling parents

The Squid and the Whale ©2005 Sony, All Rights Reserved.

December 2010

Type of cut Eyeline.
Definition A match cut where the characters’ lines of vision – their eyelines – match so they appear to be looking at each other.
Description I know I’ve talked about eyelines before, but in this scene they play such a significant, impressive role that I had to make them cut of the month. These five shots from a scene from top notch dramatic TV series Madmen, illustrate the power of eyelines in two major ways:

1) Eyelines set the scene’s geography, meaning the setting and placement of all its characters.
Typically a wide shot at the beginning of a scene sets its geography. Nowhere in the scene in there such a shot. Instead geography is established through medium shots, two shots, and group shots – all directed by eyelines. Eyelines help render this boardroom scene – a commonplace setting – anything but common in this taut scene. In shot 1 frame 1, the client starts the meeting and asks Don Draper – the show’s main character – to pitch his firm’s advertising ideas. In frame 2 – the start of shot 2 – Don looks directly at her. By the end of the shot – frame 3 – he looks to the client’s board, setting their geography so that we’re not confused when we see them in frame 4, shot 3. Similarly, in frames 5 and 6, comprising the head and tail of shot 4, a two-shot, Don’s eyeline throws the scene back to the client whom we see in the last frame.

2) Beyond setting geography, the characters’ eyelines underscore the tension in this scene. This is the first time they are meeting. Will they connect? Reach agreement? Make a deal? This is the undercurrent as they look directly at each other. In frame 2, after listening to the client’s opening remarks, Don’s eyeline shows how he takes control. In frame 3 he looks to the board to gauge their reaction to his opening pitch. Frame 4 reveals the board to be attentive but not quite hooked. Don continues his pitch in frames 5 and 6 before throwing the discussion back to the client in frame 7. And so the plot advances and this superbly edited, scripted, directed, and acted scene unfolds, eyelines playing a major part in directing and revealing the drama.

Comments For more wonderful examples of how eyelines reflect characters’ emotions and affect the story, read Chapter 2: Match Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Mad Men Frame1
  • Mad Men Frame2
  • Mad Men Frame3
  • Mad Men Frame4
  • Mad Men Clip5
  • Mad Men Clip6
  • Mad Men Clip7

Madmen, “Tomorrowland” ©2010 AMC, All Rights Reserved.

November 2010

Type of cut Black out.
Definition When a shot cuts to black.
Description This four-frame sequence crosses three scenes and forms the crux of this drama and one of its most heart-rending scenes.

Main character Vera Drake has admitted guilt for helping needy women terminate their pregnancies. In frame 1, at the end of scene 1, main Vera Drake sits in the local magistrate’s office in 1951. She has just whispered the truth to her beloved husband who has been in the dark about her unremunerated services.

I am struck by the lights and darks in these four frames which echo the dark secret coming to light. I am also struck by how the camera, which is locked off, allows the characters to move through space and their emotions.

In frame two, scene two, Vera’s husband walks toward us through falling snow. Combined with frame 3 – the cut to black – this second scene is a dark passage to frame 4 and the third scene where the door opens to the family who now must be told the news.

Powerful filmmaking thanks to stand out lighting, directing, acting, and editing.

 

Comments To see additional examples and information about black outs and other transitional effects, read Chapter 4: Cuts that use Basic Effects of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Vera Drake Clip1
  • Vera Drake Clip2
  • Vera Drake Clip3
  • Vera Drake Clip4

Vera Drake ©2004 New Line/Time Warner, All Rights Reserved.

October 2010

Type of cut Cross cut a.k.a. intercut.
Definition Editing two (or more) dependent lines of action together so that the characters, settings, or subjects interact directly and are aware of each other.
Description Battle scenes, such as this one from Avatar, are invariably intercut. Here the editor cross cuts between three lines of action: Line 1) from the ground station (frame 1) where the scientists watch the forest on planet Pandora burn to Line 2) the pilot firing on the forest (frame 2) and the other planes that are part of the attack (frame 3) to Line 3) the Pandorans reacting to their homeland being destroyed (frame 4).
Comments To see additional examples and information about cross cuts, read Chapter 8, Cutting Scenes, of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Avatar Clip1
  • Avatar Clip2
  • Avatar Clip3
  • Avatar Clip4

Avatar ©2009 Twentieth Century Fox, All Rights Reserved.

September 2010

Type of cut Slo mo.
Definition Effect where the pace of the action is decreased from what occurred in reality in front of the camera. This retardation is created during editing or, more traditionally, during filming by overcranking (running the film through the camera at a faster rate than it will be played back).
Description The slo mo, overhead shot of the olive (frame 1) as it’s dropped into the martini glass sets the tone and pace of the scene. It’s an action match to frame 2, a regular motion shot, where a hand grabs the glass. Frame 2, in turn, is an action match to frame 3 where magazine editor George Christopher (Ted Danson) turns away from the bar and walks toward camera with his employee Jonathan Ames, (Jason Schwartzman, creator and star of this Brooklyn-based comedy series).

This fun, splashy cut comes with equally delightful dialogue which I can’t resist adding. (It must be the Martini effect.)

Here’s the dialogue from the beginning of this scene, which kicks off the episode.

GC = George Christopher

JA = Jonathan Ames

GC: I love martinis. They heal all wounds. After about a thousand of them I’m still amazed.
JA: But your poor liver has had to work so hard.
GC: I know, I know. I’m very proud of her.
JA: Your liver is female?
GC: You know, all my internal organs are women.

Comments If you’d like to learn more about editing slo mo shots such as how they’re effectively mixed with regular shots, read Chapter 7, Cuts that use Time Effects of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Frame1
  • Frame2
  • Frame3

Bored to Death: The Case of the Missing Screenplay ©2009 Home Box Office, Inc, All Rights Reserved.

August 2010

Type of cut These three frames demonstrate two types of cuts: 1) Cutaway 2) Sound.
Definition 1) A cut to a small, significant detail of a scene. 2) A cut motivated by sound.
Description This month’s cuts show a crucial moment in Jack Kevorkian’s life and life’s mission: the success of his Thanatron machine with the death of his first patient. In frame 1 she pulls the cord of the lever to release the lethal drug. In frame 2 – a cutaway – the cord is gone; the lever has been pulled. In frame 3 the sound of the lever releasing alerts Kevorkian (played by Al Pacino).
Comments To find out more about the role of cutaways and sound in film editing, read Chapter 1 of Cut by Cut: Editing Your Film or Video.
  • Frame1
  • Frame2
  • Frame3

You Don’t Know Jack ©2010 Home Box Office, Inc, All Rights Reserved.

July 2010

Type of cut Eyeline match.
Definition Matching screen direction means matching how an object or character exits one shot and enters the next shot, reappearing where the audience expects to see it. For this reason camera crews pay attention to screen direction when setting up and filming shots.
Description Traditionally, when two characters talk on the phone, they are shot so they face each other, though this is not observed so much these days due to the music video effect on shooting and editing. Additionally, what I love about this pair of shots is their composition – their framing. It reflects the state of each character as they set up an evening together; the woman (played by the extraordinary Julianne Moore) is romantically dreamy and the man (played by the extraordinary Colin Firth) is emotionally needy.
Comments To see examples of matching and non-matching eyeline cuts, read Chapter 2: Match Cuts of Cutting for Pace, Rhythm and Time of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Eyeline phone scene 1
  • Eyeline phone scene 2

A Single Man ©2009 The Weinstein Company All Rights Reserved.

June 2010

Type of cut Screen direction match cut.
Definition Matching screen direction means matching how an object or character exits one shot and enters the next shot, reappearing where the audience expects to see it. For this reason camera crews pay attention to screen direction when setting up and filming shots.
Description Horizontal screen direction match

Notice the house. It is moving to right to left. So it exits frame 1 on the right and enters frame 2 on the left. If it entered frame 2 on the right it would be as if the house had reversed direction and was moving right to left. The audience would be confused, if only momentarily.

Vertical screen direction match

Now the house is descending. So in frame 2 it enters frame from the top.

Comments To find out more about editing and matching screen direction, read Chapter 2: Match Cuts of Cutting for Pace, Rhythm and Time of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Horizontal Example

    Horizontal Screen Direction 1

  • Horizontal Screen Direction 2
  • Vertical Example

    Vertical Screen Direction 1

  • Vertical Screen Direction 2

Up ©2009 Disney Pixar All Rights Reserved.

May 2010

Type of cut Superimposition.
Definition When two shots (or more) are held on top of each other.
Description Superimpositions, commonly referred to as “supers,” prolong the value of each shot, intensifying the emotion of the moment. Supers are frequently used to reflect a character’s state of mind, which this shot of a calculating character in a casino exemplifies.
Comments To find out more about how editors manipulate time, read Chapter 4: Cuts that use Basic Effects of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Superimposition

The Hangover ©2009 Warner Brothers All Rights Reserved.

April 2010

Type of cut POV (Point of View).
Definition A type of reverse cut that shows where a character is looking; a POV is a cut to what the character is seeing.
Description Happy April Fool’s Day! Here’s a literal pee-oh-vee where George Falconer (Colin Firth) peers out at his neighbor while on the toilet.
Comments To see more POVs and learn more about this important cut, read Chapter 1: Basic Cuts of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • POV1
  • POV2
  • POV3

A Single Man ©2009 The Weinstein Company All Rights Reserved.

March 2010

Type of cut Expanding time.
Definition Editing to lengthen real time.
Description Shots enter the cutting room, each with their own timing, created by the real time duration of the filmed action. Editors change this timing reflexively – shortening or lengthening it – to best tell the story. In this opening scene, Monk’s OCD (Obsessive Compulsive disorder) is palpable as he takes forever to remove his assistant’s paycheck from his checkbook. Monk’s action is drawn out to the point that she leaves the room, returning in frame 8. The scene used more than these eight cuts along with a sound effect of tearing and the series’ theme music to expand time and make the comedy work.
Comments To find out more about how editors manipulate time, read Chapter 6: Cutting for Pace, Rhythm and Time of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Monk Clip1
  • Monk Clip2
  • Monk Clip3
  • Monk Clip4
  • Monk Clip5
  • Monk Clip6
  • Monk Clip7
  • Monk Clip8

Monk, Mr. Monk and the Genius ©2009 USA Network, All Rights Reserved.

February 2010

Type of cut Matte, a.k.a. key.
Definition A common effect, achieved with two shots, by creating a hole in one shot and placing (keying) another shot in that hole.
Description Series regular Tracy Jordan announces his desire to be an astronaut at the beginning of the episode. A shot of his press conference is keyed into a TV set, a common matte device.
Comments For more information and examples of mattes – they appear in many shapes – read Chapter 5 of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know. To learn more about how mattes and other effects are created, read Chapter 8 of Cut by Cut: Editing Your Film or Video.
  • 30 Rock Clip

30 Rock: Apollo, Apollo ©2009 Universal Studios, All Rights Reserved.

January 2010

Believe it or not, the first thing I thought about was how the war did not sound like war. Having grown up watching Hollywood war movies I expected a lot more sound and much bigger sound. It was not until I was hit that I realized what I was in was real. WWII veteran*

Type of cut Sound.
Definition A cut motivated by sound.
Description Acclaimed documentarian Ken Burns succeeds in placing viewers at the scene of historical events in film after film. Here he puts us at the Allies’ June 6, 1944 landing on Omaha beach in France. How does he do this? By skillfully editing silent, live footage (Shots #1 and #3 with still footage (Shot #2 [frames 2 and 3]) and sparingly adding sound effects and narration. Burns manipulates the shots to create the desired effect: He zooms in the camera on Shot #2 and slows down the motion in Shot #3. But it’s the sound effects that make the scene real, combined with the narration that tells the story, which make the cutting come alive.
Comments To learn more about the power of sound in film, read Chapter 10 of Cut by Cut: Editing Your Film or Video.

*from Robert L. Mott’s Sound Effects: Radio, TV, and Film. Boston MA: Focal Press, 1993.

  • Shot 1
  • Shot 2
  • Shot 3

The War: Episode Four – Pride of Our Nation, ©2006 The American Lives II Film Project, LLC, All Rights Reserved.

December 2009

Type of cut Match cut on movement, a.k.a. an action match.
Definition A match from the action (movement or motion) of characters or objects in one shot to the action in the next shot where the action continues or completes.
Description This riot scene follows a peaceful protest of a visit to Berlin by Shah of Iran in 1967. The match is on the movement of the crowd of protestors fleeing the police and their moving batons. These action cuts put viewers in the middle of the scene so they can live the experience of the protestors. The cuts also literally move the action and the story forward.
Comments To learn more about match cuts and matching on movement, read Chapter 2 of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Scene 1 from Baader Meinhof Complex
  • Scene 2 from Baader Meinhof Complex
  • Scene 3 from Baader Meinhof Complex

Baader Meinhof Complex ©2009 Constantin Films, All Rights Reserved.

November 2009

Type of cut Eyeline – Non matching.
Definition An eyeline cut is a cut to where the characters’ lines of vision – their eyelines – match so they appear to be looking at each other.
Description This family is not connecting – everyone is in their own world – so their eyelines do not match. The reason? The mother (frame 3) – a pot dealer – is evading her family with her words and her eyes. As the scene progresses, she looks her family in the eye and defiantly confesses to burning down the family home. Then the family’s eyelines match as they stare at her in horror and disbelief.
Comments To learn more about matching and non-matching eyelines, read Chapter 1 of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know..
  • Scene 1 from Weeds
  • Scene 2 from Weeds
  • Scene 3 from Weeds

Weeds Episode 401 ©2008 Showtime Networks Inc, All Rights Reserved.

October 2009

Type of cut Eyeline match
Definition A match cut where the characters’ lines of vision – their eyelines – match so they appear to be looking at each other.
Description A lovely raking shot (frame #1), shows a couple of cop-lovers on stake-out. Amidst their shop talk and banter, they share a warm moment (frames #2 and #3). Their matching eyelines solidify this connection before the scene cuts to a master shot (frame #4) and she prepares to exit her car and go off to work.
Comments To see examples of matching and non-matching eyeline cuts, and learn about all the different types of match cuts, read Chapter 2 of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
  • Scene 1 from Dexter
  • Scene 2 from Dexter
  • Scene 3 from Dexter
  • Scene 4 from Dexter

Dexter, Season 3, Episode 305 ©2008 Showtime Networks Inc, All Rights Reserved.

September 2009

Type of cut Cutaway
Definition A cut to a small, significant detail of a scene.
Description An editor’s job is to move the story forward with every cut. Look at what this cutaway does: It takes the action from one scene to a reverse angle in another scene. To catch some more cool cutaways and learn more about what a cutaway can do for a movie, read Chapter 1 of Film Editing: Great Cuts Every Filmmaker and Movie Lover Must Know.
Comments This was a great cut because it deftly brings together two story lines of action with one short cutaway.
  • Scene A from Cars
  • Scene B from Cars
  • Scene C from Cars

Cars ©2006 Disney/Pixar, All Rights Reserved.

The website author acknowledges the copyright owners of all motion pictures from which single frames have been used for purposes of commentary, criticism, and scholarship under the Fair Use Doctrine.