Archive for the ‘Editing practices’ Category

Guest Blog: Why Editing Can Make or Break
Your Corporate Video

January 28th, 2015

On this site and in my books I’ve written on this subject but I thought it would be good for editors, producers, and other filmmakers to hear it from a company of professionals. I welcome guest bloggers with informative articles so here’s one submitted by One Inch Punch Pro, a Toronto based video production company that creates corporate videos, music videos, short films, reality television and more.

Why Editing and a Good Editor Matter
If you are tasked with creating a corporate video, you should be aware One Inch Punch Pro Video Production companythat the mere production won’t be the end of the road. There is another critical step that can make or break your video and that is the editing process. Some mistakenly brush off editing as a final touch up that doesn’t significantly alter the content of the production. The truth is that editing really does matter and it has the potential to make a video a hit or a dud.

Editing takes experience, technical knowledge and an eye for what looks, sounds and feels good. Lean on the expertise of a corporate video production company if you have any concerns over the editing process. The editor you hire will know all the ins and outs of the editing process including motion graphics, soundtracks, compression formats and more.

Plan the Editing Process: Getting Started
CalendarWhether or not you proceed with the help of a professional video editor, you should establish a plan for the editing of your footage. Take a few minutes to plan out how you’d like your final production to appear. Think about your target audience and your motivation to create the video in the first place. Then think about how you’d like to supplement your video content with things like animations, text and graphics. Re-watch your footage and take notes about what you’d like to improve and how you’ll go about doing it. Once you’ve established a vision, it is time to start editing.

Convey a Story
A story is the foundation of just about every video production. It is imperative that storyboardyou keep this in mind during the editing process. An editor has the power to make subtle changes that will shore up a story and connect events in a manner that engages the audience with the plot. The editor should be able to determine which parts of the script don’t carry over well onto the screen and then re-craft your video to fill in the gaps to help reinforce the plot.

Establish the Pace
The pace at which your video proceeds can make a big impact on the audience. Use the editing process to focus on the length of time that shots are held. Pay attention to how quickly you cut from scene to scene and how much time you let the camera hold certain images. This is a delicate balance that can be refined during the editing process. Be careful to not linger very long on one image or scene as it might serve to turn off the audience and cause their minds to wander. Over cutting or rapid cutting between shots can leave audiences confused and feeling as though they are watching a video that is rushed. Just because a video has a lot of cuts doesn’t mean it is good. Part of an editor’s job is to find the emotion in a scene, and sometimes holding on one shot is the best cut of all.

One key area where corporate editors exerts control is the music. While editors don’t always choose a video’s full score, they often have a say in the style of music, where it is implemented and for how long. Music really does make a monumental impact on the quality of the final production.

music scoreWhen you think of the typical corporate video’s soundtrack, you likely think of extremely cheesy music that sounds generic and flat out bad. It’s the type of music that doesn’t hold a viewer’s attention. This is exactly what you want to avoid and where the editing process can play a key role. When editing, ask yourself, “Does this music make the viewer want to stay tuned in?” The proper music has the potential to do even more than that. Ideally, the audio will actually pull viewers in and spur them to pay closer attention to your video’s story.

When editing, be sure to fit the music to distinct parts of the video as appropriate. For instance, if you have an intense segment that transitions into a hopeful scene and further evolves into a humorous ending, select different music for each part. The right music will establish a foundation for the actions, words and animations that occur on the screen.

Problem Solving: An Important Role of Editing
The editing process is in place to make a video production “work.” While the editing suitedirector/cameraperson invests plenty of time and effort filming all sorts of shots, the editor is there to piece it all together into a cohesive production. This is extremely challenging; many editors actually fail to solve all of the problems in an artful manner. Sometimes there is a missing segment of the script because actors weren’t available on certain days. Other times, there are problems with audio, images and animations. The editing process is key to ironing out these issues and building a final product that is greater than the sum of its parts. It’s a bit like piecing together a jigsaw puzzle.

Editing practices, Editor’s role, Technical & process

Beyond Gunsmoke: Practice Footage for Serious Editors

January 21st, 2015

Are you a beginning editor who desperately want some practice cutting footage Turf War framebefore striking out in the world? A film student or a college looking for footage beyond the tired all scenes (such as the scene from Gunsmoke which I and others taught over the decades)? Misha Tenenbaum, an editor whom I met a few years ago at a LAFPUG* meeting, has created Editstock for you. Editstock has carefully selected contemporary scenes from different genres – comedy, drama, commercial, music video – for you to practice with. The scenes – and there’s a short film too – are rated for beginner, intermediate, or expert. So whatever level you are, you can ratchet up your chops.
*Los Angeles Final Cut Pro Users Group

Expert Feedback
Creative feedback frameBut wait! It gets better. Re-cutting and learning how to take notes from clients, directors, and producers are important skills every professional editor must develop. Even if you’re working on your own projects you’ll want to get feedback from members of your target audience. Editstock also provides feedback on scenes from Misha and from no less that the likes of Norman Hollyn, a film editing veteran, author and the resident editing guru (an Associate Professor) at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts.

Building the Bomb frame frameEditstock believes “that any individual, regardless of their access to film school, should be able to get practice materials that are as ambitious as their own career dreams.” If you read this blog you know that I rarely go commercial or give endorsements but I recommend Misha and his team. We’ve all been there, waiting, hoping, anxious to get that first job or that next job and to be confident that we have the experience to handle it. Misha’s dreamed up an invaluable service to help beginners, intermediates, and those growing rusty waiting for that next job or wanting to retain their proficiency on an editing system they’ve just learned.

Let Joy know what you think of Editstock if you use it.

Editing practices, Editor’s role, Technical & process

100 years of Rotoscoping

January 16th, 2015

Confession: I’ve watched “Glee” since its first episode in May 2009. I like the message of the show – acceptance – seeing GBLT characters as well as hetero-and metrosexual characters, and its often non-formulaic plots, issues, and nuances not to mention its musical numbers. As a member of Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (the TV equivalent of the Motion Picture Academy where you get to vote on the Emmys) I enjoyed a Glee cast and crew night (Cory Monteith, RIP, was more good looking in person). However, last season (#5) I thought the show died with Monteith, unfortunately.

So I tuned in this week for the beginning of Season 6, the final season, as creator Ryan Murphy has announced, ready for the show to end. I was elated to see new directors and a reboot of the show. I loved this number on Episode 2, “Homecoming.”

It is a scene designed to be completed in post and a nice homage to a particular type of animation, still used and appreciated today. Can you guess the two filming techniques the filmmakers used?

Dissecting the Scene
If you guessed green screen and rotoscoping, you are correct. This energetic scene, uniquely combines green screen (the frame the characters hold and characters jump through) and rotoscoping (the B & W animated part of the scene).

Rotoscoping is where you draw an outline over live action to create animation. This technique was patented in 1915 by its creator, Max Fleischer who put the Bop in Betty and animated Superman, Popeye, Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer and more.

The more you know and understand about film techniques, the more creative you can be. Enjoy this succinct tutorial

on how you can rotoscope your own films today as well as brief history of Fleischer and his rotoscope machine.

Editing practices, History/research, Technical & process, Television, Visual FX editing

Editing a Book Trailer – Part 2

December 11th, 2014

My caveat for PictureYourBook’s  second book trailer was that my partner Jay and I create a trailer with free music (thank you YouTube) and no VO. My reason? I wanted to show authors how a lower budget video can still be a highly effective, engaging trailer. Here’s Jay’s experience meeting that and other challenges that the trailer presented.

Cut By Cut – Editing Your Film or Video, 2nd Edition 1:02 from Jay on Vimeo.

Editing the trailer for the book Cut by Cut, Editing your Film or Video by Jay Scherberth

Challenge: Multiple Assets and a Multi-Step Process
The main challenge in planning and editing this trailer was to keep track of the many steps involved and required tools used so that future modifications could be accomplished as efficiently as possible.
After reviewing Gael’s storyboard, I quickly realized that organization was going to be extremely important. With over 160 individual assets, I needed to start with a directory structure that would allow me to break down and categorize each element for easy retrieval.

Solution: Organization
I created a parent folder on my project hard drive hard drive called ‘Assets’ under which I would create sub-folders for each asset type; e.g. images, SFX, music, VO, photos, EFX and so on. The idea is to create ‘bins’ (folders) in the edit project that mirror the physical external storage allowing for easy, organized import.

It’s very important to place your initial assets in a location that isn’t going to change until the end of the project. Not doing so causes the dreaded “Media Off-Line” or “Media Can’t be found” messages when opening your editing project.

Setting up the Project
Whenever possible, I prefer to create my editing projects and do all visual effects and final output in one NLE tool – Adobe Premiere. However, due to the large amount of assets and the desired design concept, I needed to spread the workload between the CC 2014 versions of Premier, Photoshop, After Effects, Audition and Media Encoder. This workflow created more steps but enabled me to have access to a larger array of effects and flexibility for making changes. It’s easy to paint yourself into a corner without a thoughtful approach to the challenges of a complicated project.

Workflow and Software Tools
I combined visual elements into composite Photoshop images. These resources were imported into After Effects allowing for layer level manipulation. While working in After Effects, I created several compositions and sub-compositions that were imported directly into Premier. The Premiere NLE was used mainly as a way to assemble all the After Effects imports and to add music, titles, and sound effects. I employed Adobe Media encoder to accomplish the final encoding and delivery.

Final Note
The ability to directly edit and import / export visual material between Adobe tools greatly simplifies the overall workflow process when multiple tools are required to finish a project. I don’t mean to sound like a commercial – I don’t get a dime from Adobe – it’s just an editor’s truth.

Editing practices, Editor’s role, Marketing & budgeting, Technical & process, Visual FX editing

Editing a Book Trailer – Part 1

December 1st, 2014

Jay Scherberth is my partner in PictureYourBook, a book trailer company. I do the writing, storyboarding, and marketing to authors, Jay does the editing and designed our website. We both review the cuts and interface with the authors.

We met each other in a cutting room in 1986 when I was his assistant editor. Jay has been on the cutting edge of editing storytelling and technical skills, having pioneered computer editing on All in the Family and other Norman Lear show and cut MTV’s first “Video Album” (Blondie’s, “Eat to the Beat.”) Jay has edited popular shows such as Columbo, MacGyver, Full House, and Scrubs.
Most recently he cut the independent film short El Doctor.

I am lucky to have him as a partner and a friend.

I asked Jay to write up his approach to and process for his first foray into this new form of promo – book trailers. Here’s his first post.

Chronicles of Old San Francisco – 1:49 from Jay on Vimeo.

Editing the Book Trailer for Chronicles of Old San Francisco by Jay Scherberth

My overriding goal was to assemble an effective, quality trailer while keeping the costs as low as possible. To accomplish this, I limited the number of tools needed to complete the project. I decided to create a trailer that could be done entirely using my NLE editor, Adobe Premier CC 2014. Today’s professional NLE products allow for titling, motion control, sound editing and many styles of image manipulation. There are no less than 9 tracks of picture and sound running in the timeline, yet I was able to maintain complete control over all these elements, without sacrificing flexibility or quality.

Budget and the Importance of Planning
The trick of bringing a project in on time and at or under budget is to know how the final product will turn out before any actual editing takes place. With notes, sketches and storyboards, I was able to anticipate problems before they occurred. Planning is an integral part of editing and the more you think about what you want to end up with, the closer you will come to that goal.

The Challenge of Mixed Media
Another challenge in doing this project was working with mixed media. That’s not to say that Premiere can’t handle image assets of different file types, resolutions and codecs. It does an amazing job of including just about anything you can throw at it. But there are limits to what media is usable and practical. For example, in working with historical material, you’re sometimes faced with the dilemma of using material that may be sized below the resolution of the editing project itself.

Choosing the Right Resolution
I decided to go with 720p which is 1280 x 720 resolution in this project. Going any higher would be a waste of storage and bandwidth given the preponderance of small mobile devices the trailer is likely to be played on. Any image or video assets that were at or above the 720p resolution were OK to use. But unfortunately, some of the supplied material was significantly below 720p and presented a challenge in terms of maintaining image quality and clarity.

Accommodating Multiple Viewing Platforms
Because of the many viewing platforms ranging from smart phones to tables to desktops, delivery can be the final challenge. The editor needs to make sure that small screen users have a satisfactory viewing experience. For example, make sure that all title are within the safe title boundaries and that the smallest font size used is still readable.

This first trailer experience was a good one. The icing on the cake was finding Marcia Bauman who composed music that fit our trailer perfectly.

Editing & life, Editing practices, Editor’s role, Marketing & budgeting, Technical & process, Television

Anatomy of a Book Trailer

November 26th, 2014

I have formed a film company for creating book trailers called PictureYourBook. What is a book trailer? It’s a 1-3 minute video promo designed to tell readers what the book is about and intrigue them enough to buy it. Yes. Just as a movie trailer (a.k.a. a movie preview) lets an audience know about a film, so a book trailer informs readers about a book (eBook and/or print).

And, believe it or not, there are two sets of awards for Best Book Trailer. The Moby Award and the Trailie Award. But I get ahead of myself so see the end of this post for more.

Book Trailer Venues
A book trailer that can be placed on an author’s website, their publisher’s website, YouTube, Vimeo, etc. the author can run it during book talks. (I have and to resounding applause, I am pleased to report). A trailer can be DVD’d, blogged, emailed, and used in marketing in any ways the author or their publicist dreams up.

Creating a Book Trailer
The procedure for creating a trailer follows the basic 4-step filmmaking process: Plan, Storyboard, Edit, Deliver.

Types of Book Trailers
I’ve spent hours viewing countless book trailers. Some of them are atrocious, consisting of zooms into the book cover and back along with blurbs and unappealing music. Others are fantastic – both low budget author-on-camera trailers and high budget movie type trailers with movie stars. From my sortie through book trailer land, I’ve identified many types of trailers. Here are a few of the types paired with examples:

  1. Trailers featuring the author
    • Boys, Girls and Other Hazardous Materials Rosalind Wiseman talks about how her students helped her write her book, how she giggles while typing it, and how she interviewed students. The trailer firmly establishes her credentials in the beginning and shows how and why she wrote the book and its appeal as well as her hopes and dreams for the book.
    • Freedom by Famous author Jonathan Frazen trashes book trailers at the same time standing up for books. This trailer won a Moby Award for worst performance by an author.
  2. Trailers featuring Animals
    Animals are always great at selling lots of products. Why not books?
    • Little Chicken’s Big Day Using the authentic voices of preschoolers to sell a book to them along with adorable chicks and drawings of chicks this trailer earned a Trailie Award.
    • While seated amongst bonobos in their habitat, Vanessa Woods tells why she wrote Bonobo Handshake . Won Moby Award for Most Monkey sex (which occurs in the background).
  3. Funny book trailers
    • A Simples Life trailer. Popular British funnyman Aleksandra Orlove narrates this humorous trailer about two meerkats, the stars of his book.
    • Super Sad True Love Story. Long (4:42) but skewers approaches to selling books: crazy author who can’t read & works for pickles & women w/faked Russian family, other well-known authors commenting, and even actor James Franco. Winner of the Grand Jury Moby Award, “We’re Giving You This Award Because Otherwise You’d Win Too Many Other Awards.”
  4. Stop motion Animation Trailers with Food
    Food can be a fun and informative way to wet readers’ appetites.
    • The Book of SPAM. This excellent trailer employs “Toastadvertising” – pieces of toast – to tell the tale.
  5. Documentary Style Trailers
  6. Text-Driven Trailers

Trailer Awards
There have been Trailie Awards for children’s’ books and Moby Awards for adult books though both awards are not currently being given out.

Moby Awards
A Moby is a tongue-in-cheek award initiated by Melville House, a Brooklyn based publisher given out an Oscar mocking ceremony. A thrown-together committee bestows a Golden Whale statue (a toy painted gold) on winners of trailers in a variety of irreverent categories e.g. “Least Likely to Sell a Book,” ”Most Celebtastic Performance,” “Most Annoying Appearance by an Author,” and “Biggest Waste of Conglomerate Money.”

Trailie Awards
The School Library Journal, a professional association of librarians, established the Trailie and designated six categories based on grade (PreK-6 and 7-12) and creator (student, adult, or publisher/author). Anyone can nominate or vote for a trailer but a committee of librarians selects the best and announces them at a reading conference.

Announcements, Editing practices, History/research, Technical & process

Solve Problems, Become a Filmmaker

September 1st, 2013

I promised Professor Robert Gerst a review of his book, Make Film History: Rewrite, Reshoot, Recut the World’s Most Greatest Films. I was unable to complete the review before getting the offer to write Chronicles of Old San Francisco and going on hiatus so here it is. Since I continue to have other writing demands and book editing duties and have been traveling, I don’t know when I’ll return to blogging so enjoy this current entry and those neatly categorized on the right from the past.

Make Film History: Rewrite, Reshoot, Recut the World’s Most Greatest Films cover

A fellow author with publisher Michael Wiese Productions, Gerst chairs the Liberal Arts Dept. at U of Mass College of Art and Design and uses the book as a teaching tool. So too can you teach yourself by reading it and doing the exercises.

First off, the cover of the book grabbed me. It’s an exercise in lighting and storytelling unto itself. And it contains an Easter egg of sorts in the form of an orange dot announcing that this landscape- shaped book includes an interactive website – Gerst’s –

Becoming a Problem Solver

“I’m a problem solver” people say. “We’re all problem solvers,” I say. Editors solve picture, sound, continuity, and story problems primarily as well as many other problems.

Make Film History presents the real problems film directors have faced over the evolution of moviemaking. Then it challenges you, the reader, to create your own films sparked by the solutions to these problems which naturally include editing. Each chapter focuses on a different well-known director’s dilemma, from Eadweard Muybridge – who transformed still frames to moving pictures – through Spike Jonze’s who grappled with person and role in Being John Malkovich.

The book’s screen shots along with movie scenes (available at the website), demonstrate the challenges which include shooting, editing, montage, music, sound, and aspect ratio along with each director’s solutions. Together, these comprise the bedrock of filmmaking technique. Following in the tradition of famous painters learning from imitating others, Gerst then provides two short exercises; the first tells you how to re-create the technique; the second urges you to make your own film based on the technique. Editing exercises include jump cuts, reinventing montage, keeping continuity, and chroma keying.

“Read it. Learn it. Do it.” This is what the website and the book Make Film History exhort readers to do and what it solidly delivers.

Editing practices, Editor’s role, History/research

A Head for Comedy and Editing Machines

December 29th, 2012

In 1985 I walked into waiting room – a wide space with chairs in the hallway – of the head of post production’s office at Universal Studios. A dapper 60-something man in a cardigan sat in a chair, patiently waiting for me. He was editor Dann Cahn, my new boss. Thus we began a season together on The New Leave it to Beaver, a show new to both of us, on Ediflex a non-linear, video-tape system new to both of us. Actually “Beaver,” as those of us who worked on it called it non-ironically, was not new to Dann. Executive producer Brian Levant specifically hired Dann because he’d directed and edited on the original series in the 1950s.

Dann with Lucy and Desi Dann with Moviola

Dann and his monster Moviola

at the Hollywood Museum

Dann was a tip top comedy editor, most famous for his time at Desilu, starting with the first episode of I Love Lucy. A lifelong friend of the star couple, Dann created a multi-cam Moviola to match this pioneer sitcom. Dubbed the monster Moviola due to its four heads (three for cutting picture, one for cutting sound), it allowed editors to view all three camera angles of a scene at one time. While the scenes ran, the editor grease penciled cut points for cutting and splicing later.

After meeting in the waiting room
Dann and I received training on our parts of Ediflex: His the editing part and mine the pre- and post- cutting work. While the producers loved how he was putting the shows together, it quickly transpired that he needed help running the editing system. The solution? I operated the system for Dann and an apprentice was hired to do parts of my job. Frankly, I could never learn from watching editors edit; it was boring. But having to anticipate how to execute Dann’s edits on the Ediflex, I not only learned the editor’s side of the system but got into Dann’s head and learned comedy cutting from a master. As things progressed, Dann finessed things so I cut scenes and then shows, getting my first show credit.

This is how things should work in the world of editing (and elsewhere for that matter): The experienced helping the apprentice to learn. Dann earned a reputation before and after me for boosting the careers of many aspiring editors.

Via Facebook, I am in touch with his son, the current president of the Editor’s Guild, who posted that Dann’s final fade out at 89 this November was a smooth transition.

May your transitions in your career as well as to the New Year be as smooth. And may you pay things back as well as forward in your life.

Editing & life, Editing practices, Editor’s role, Jobs

Why you will benefit from sitting through a session of The Sessions

December 19th, 2012

The subject of The Sessions – a paralyzed poet hiring a sex surrogate to lose his virginity – may make you writhe at the thought of a touchy-feely film. Go anyway. While the movie doesn’t have the laughs that Steve Carrell and Katherine Keener served up in The Forty Year Old Virgin, it does deliver a humanness about sex that all of us have felt no matter how abled we are. As I see it, we are all in the dark and isolated, groping for light and connection and hoping for love. And the characters of Mark O’Brien and Cheryl Cohen Greene, played by Robert Hawke and Helen Hunt respectively, are no different.

One on One Movie
The heart of The Sessions throbs with the thoughts and emotions of two people. No one has described cutting such scenes better than Carol Littleton (Body Heat, The SessionsPlaces in the Heart, and The Big Chill and many more): “One-to-one dialogue scenes are difficult because it’s literally about the very thin connection between two people and that connection can’t be violated.  You have to be aware of it all the time.  They may be connecting or not connecting emotionally, but you have to be aware of what’s happening between them the whole time.”

But let’s hear from the editor of The Sessions herself. Lisa Bromwell, A.C.E., wrote in a guest blog in Indiewire on December 5 about the challenge of the movie: “The story of an immobile polio victim living in a big metal box has its own editorial challenges to say the least. For one, it has very little inherent movement. There’s an old editor’s adage that says to make a cut invisible, cut on movement. And I had a main character that could barely move. Big problem.”

Bromwell adds, “Beyond that, there was the tricky issue of getting the tone right. We wanted the audience to be moved by Mark’s journey and touched by the fullness of his life without falling into melodrama. That meant we needed the humor in the script to work without betraying the reality of his disability.”

How did Bromwell solve the problems? She worked with director Ben Lewin, himself a polio victim, moving and eliminating fantasy Mark’s fantasy sequences, adding a VO of him reciting his poetry at the beginning, and making other structuring changes. Regarding structure Bromwell relates, “Ben used time ellipses in the script – right in the middle of an embarrassingly awkward moment with the sex surrogate, we would cut to Mark describing his feelings to his mortified but intrigued priest [played by William Macy]. We realized we could use this device both sooner and more often. As long as we were advancing the story, we could flash forward or back without confusion.”

When female editors are often called for
Steven Spielberg hired in 1982 Carol Littleton to cut E.T. because he believed a Women and Hollywood logofemale editor would bring more humanity to the E.T. character. Things haven’t changed much in 30 years a Lewin also deliberately set out to hire a female editor, Bromwell reports, because he “felt a woman would be more sensitive to the emotionality of the story.” Bromwell reflects, “I don’t know if that’s true – I like a good gunfight as much as any guy. But right or wrong, I think women are perceived as being more nurturing.”

Editors as chefs
Bromwell gives clear insight into a good editor-director relationship when she writes, “Whatever their gender, the editor sees everything – that means all the mistakes as well as every flash of genius. There needs to be a level of security between director and editor so neither censors their thoughts before speaking. It’s often the crazy bad idea that turns out to be brilliant.”

To illustrate her point, Bromwell recounts her experience cooking Chicken Mole Negro one day during her time off: “The multi-page recipe called for nuts and dried fruits and all sorts of fabulous things including peppers so hot you had to handle them with gloves. Finally, after hours of work, the last item you add is chocolate. This sounds like a terrible idea that will ruin the entire thing. But it doesn’t — it’s the key. Just like editing, every little bit counts and sometimes the most unlikely ingredient turns out to be the thing that makes magic.”

Editing & life, Editing practices, Editor’s role, Joy goes to the movies

Grease Pencils to Light Pens to Touch Tablets:
The Technical Evolution of Motion Picture Editing

December 12th, 2012

At last, a diligent soul, one John Buck, has had the passion and taken the time to trace the track of editing from its manual scissors and glue past to its electronic mouse and keyboard present. An Australian editor, Buck writes up the recent fast track decades of technological advances as well as the build-up to them over scores of years in two books under the title: Timeline: A History of Editing.

Cover Volume 1 editdroid

EditDroid: Where Darth Vader appeared

when you tried something it didn’t like.

Volume 1 details the evolutions from 1898-1988, spanning the period from film (nitrate and non) to tape (linear and non).  It contains interviews Buck made of major system inventor-engineers Adrian Ettlinger and Andy Maltz (Ediflex) and others responsible for the development of analogue, tape-based systems such as CMX, Convergence, D-Vision, EditDroid, and Montage.

Cover Volume 2 Lightworks

Lightworks’ unique console

Volume 2 covers the years 1988 to 2000 and the saga of how film and video systems paved the road to today’s currents digital editing tools. It too is chock full of interviews with the key players and prime movers of today’s tools which include: Avid, Final Cut Pro, iMovie, Lightworks, Media 100, and Premiere.

Buck’s book includes the following splendid timeline – decipherable by logo by the end – of editing technology. You can download a high, medium, or low res copy here.


We are indeed indebted to Buck for a contribution to film history that only an editor could make.

Editing practices, History/research, Technical & process